Antonov An-12

Civil and military transport aircraft introduced in 1959

Russia Air Force Antonov An 12BK 14 RED
photo: Dmitry

The Antonov An-12 is a turboprop medium-range, four-engined, cargo and paratroop transport aircraft manufactured by Antonov and primarily used by the Soviet Air Force. The An-12 is the military variant of the An-10.

1957 to: 1973


Litton APSO-504(V)3
4x Ivchenko AI-20L
4,000 pound-force
Max Cruise Speed:
420 knots
778 Km/h
Approach Speed (Vref):
120 knots
Travel range:
3,100 Nautical Miles
5,741 Kilometers
Fuel Economy:
Service Ceiling:
33,500 feet
Rate of Climb:
2000 feet / minute
10.16metre / second
Take Off Distance:
700 metre - 2,296.56 feet
Landing Distance:
500 metre - 1,640.40 feet
Max Take Off Weight:
61,000 Kg
134,481 lbs
Max Landing Weight:
58,000 Kg
127,867 lbs
Max Payload:
20,000 Kg
44,092 lbs
Fuel Tank Capacity:
8,080 gallon
30,586 litre
Baggage Volume:
90 m3 / 3,178 ft3
Seats - Economy / General:
5 seats
Seats - Business Class:
Seats - First Class:
Cabin Height:
2.47 metre - 8.10 feet
Cabin Width:
3.5 metre - 11.48 feet
Cabin Length:
13.5 metre - 44.29 feet
Exterior Length:
33.1 metre - 108.59 feet
Tail height:
11.44 metre - 37.53 feet
Fuselage Diameter:
3.9 metre - 12.80 feet
Wing Span / Rotor Diameter:
38 metre - 124.67 feet
Wing Tips:
no winglets
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The Antonov An-12 was derived from the An-8 and was a military variant of the passenger transport aircraft An-10. In December 1957, the first prototype took its first flight. In 1959, it entered into service with the Soviet Air Force. Originally, aircraft production took place at the State Aviation Factory in Irkutsk before it was stationed to Tashkent in 1962. 830 An-12 were built at the Tashkent Aviation Plant. Subsequently, the production of the An-12 was transferred to Voronezh and Kazan. The Antonov An-12 was produced from 1957 to 1973.

The Antonov An-12 was utilized in various roles such as search and rescue missions and equipment transport. It was most useful during the Soviet-Afghan War where it was notorious that the aircraft would take off from Afghanistan to Tashkent, Uzbekistan with Cargo 200. The aircraft can carry a maximum of one hundred fully-equipped paratroopers or 20,000 kg of cargo load. Concerning layout, dimensions, and aircraft capabilities, the An-12 is identical with the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. The An-12 is also equipped with a defensive tail gun turret.

The aircraft has an exterior length of 33.1 meters, a height of 11.44 meters, and a fuselage diameter of 3.9 meters. The wheelbase is 9.8 meters, the wingspan is 38 meters, and the wing area is 121.7 square meters. Some aircraft can be loaded with 2×23 mm Nudelman-rikhter NR-23 cannons.

The An-12 is powered by four Ivchenko AI-20L or AI-20M turboprop engines. Each engine has a maximum thrust of 4,000 shaft horsepower. It is a single-shaft turboprop with 10-stage axial-compressor with four bypass valves, annular combustors with ten burner cones, a three-stage axial flow turbine, and a pressure type feed fully recirculating oil system. The aircraft is also equipped with four-bladed constant speed reversible-pitch propellers.

The aircraft has a maximum speed of 360 knots, a cruise speed of 310 knots, and a range of 3,100 nautical miles with maximum fuel. With a maximum payload of 20,000 kg, it can fly up to 1,900 nautical miles.