The Tupolev Tu-134 was a Soviet narrow-body jet airliner built by Tupolev Design Bureau. The initial model was designed with a glass nose and can be operated from unpaved runways. Developed from the Tu-124, the Tu-134 was first flown in July 1963 and was introduced in September 1970. The aircraft was produced from 1966 to 1980 with a total number of 854 units built including two prototypes.
The narrow-body jet airliner Tu-134 performed its first scheduled flight from Moscow to Adler in September 1967. It was the first airliner from the Soviet Union to be awarded an international certification from the International Civil Aviation Organization, which enabled it to fly on international routes. The aircraft was operated by Aeroflot on its international flights. By 1972, the Soviet airline used the Tu-134 in its domestic routes. The aircraft was introduced on September 9, 1970, and was produced from 1966 to 1989. Two prototypes plus eight hundred fifty-two production aircraft were built.
The Tupolev Tu-134 can accommodate three to five flight crew plus three to four flight attendants and seventy-two to eighty-four passengers or 8,200 kg of payload. The cabin length is 15.93 meters, the cabin height is 1.96 meters, and the cabin width is 2.71 meters. It has an external length of 37.1 meters, an external height of 4.6 meters, and a fuselage diameter of 2.9 meters. The wingspan is 29.01 meters and the wing area is 127.3 square meters. The aircraft has an empty weight of 27,960 kg, a gross weight of 47,000 kg, and a maximum takeoff weight of 47,600 kg. The fuel tank capacity is 3,500 US gal.
The narrow-body Tu-134 airliner is powered by two Soloviev D-30-II engines. It is a two-shaft low-bypass turbofan engine with an axial fan four-stage LP and ten-stage HP compressor and a two-stage HP and two-stage LP turbine. Each engine produces a maximum takeoff thrust of 14,990 lbf. The aircraft has a maximum speed of 510 knots and a cruise speed of around 400 to 460 knots. The travel range is from 1,000 to 1,600 nautical miles and the ferry flight range is 1,700 nautical miles. It can fly up to 39,700 feet and can climb at a rate of 2,756 feet per minute. The takeoff and landing distances are 2,440 meters and 1,340 meters, respectively.